Download PDF by Peter Ladefoged: A Course in Phonetics, Fourth edition

By Peter Ladefoged

ISBN-10: 0155073192

ISBN-13: 9780155073197

The simple to appreciate method builds at the fundamentals, starting with technical phrases required for describing speech and transcription symbols sooner than relocating directly to the phonetics of English and different languages.

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Additional resources for A Course in Phonetics, Fourth edition

Example text

Because the proton is positively charged its entry into the nucleus is much more difficult than is that of a neutron. There is increasing electrostatic repulsion as it approaches the positively charged nucleus and the proton has to have considerable energy to achieve the desired penetration. F o r this purpose the protons are usually accelerated to high energies in the machine called a cyclotron and isotopes produced in this way are often called 'Cyclotron Produced Isotopes'. The most common result of proton bombardment of nuclei is the capture of the proton and the ejection of a neutron—the ' p - n ' reaction.

Relative a m o u n t s o f different isotopes a m o n g the fission fragments. relatively high yields are caesium 137, strontium 90, and tellurium 131, the parent of iodine 131. Fission is the main source of these materials. In all, about 300 different radioactive isotopes accumulate in the uranium rods of a working reactor, some of them coming from radioactive 'families' which stem from direct fission products. An example of one of these 'families' is that coming from the fission product xenon 139.

Nevertheless the ' p i l e ' is a major source of radioactive isotopes. The splitting of the uranium nucleus does not follow a fixed pattern but rather there is a matter of chance about the size of the fragments of any particular fission; the whole effect rather resembles the efforts of an inexperienced axeman trying to split logs! Very seldom will a fission yield equal parts, and very seldom will it result in a very small and a very large part. The pattern is that shown in Fig. 17, which shows the relative amounts of the different atomic number materials produced.

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A Course in Phonetics, Fourth edition by Peter Ladefoged


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