By Bronwen Cohen, Peter Moss, Pat Petrie, Jennifer Wallace
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Additional info for A New Deal for Children?: Re-forming Education and Care in England, Scotland and Sweden
Rapid expansion in the early years of the late 1960s and through the 1970s occurred under the centralised welfare state, and was marked by detailed state regulation of standards and funding. But in the 1980s, detailed regulations were done away with and more responsibility was given to local authorities. The state’s role was reduced to providing more general guidance and support for development and research (Broberg and Hwang, 1991). The same process occurred with schooling. In the early 1990s, when local authority influence over education was being reduced in England and, to a lesser extent, in Scotland, Swedish local authorities were given full responsibility for schools, including the employment of schoolteachers.
Structural conditions provide the national, macro-level contexts for reforms, and vary over time and between countries. In this chapter we analyse four broad contextual dimensions: the people and the economy; welfare regimes; government; and understandings of children. We have tried, where possible, to treat England and Scotland separately, though in some cases separate information is not available. The importance of the contextual dimensions will become apparent when we turn, in the following chapters, to consider the reform process and why it took the course it did in each country.
The 29 A New Deal for children? Swedish system, by contrast, delivers uniformly rather good provision, staffed by a well-qualified and relatively well-paid workforce. org) Generous public benefits and services certainly cost government a lot in Sweden. Overall, Sweden has the highest public expenditure on social protection (which includes healthcare, pensions and benefits to families) in the EU, whether measured as a proportion of GDP or as expenditure per head of population – – in both cases rather more than a fifth higher than in the UK.
A New Deal for Children?: Re-forming Education and Care in England, Scotland and Sweden by Bronwen Cohen, Peter Moss, Pat Petrie, Jennifer Wallace