By Yoshiyuki Kikuchi
Anglo-Japanese and American-Japanese connections in chemistry had an incredible effect at the institutionalization of clinical and technological greater schooling in Japan from the past due 19th century and onwards. They helped outline the constitution of eastern clinical pedagogical and study method that lasted good into the post-World global II interval of huge technological improvement, whilst it turned one of many greatest prone of chemists and chemical engineers on the earth subsequent to Europe and the USA. In telling this tale, Anglo-American Connections in jap Chemistry explores numerous websites of technological know-how schooling equivalent to instructing laboratories and study rooms - the place British and American lecturers mingled with jap scholars - to shed new gentle at the lab as a domain of worldwide human come upon and complicated social kin that formed clinical perform.
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Extra resources for Anglo-American Connections in Japanese Chemistry: The Lab as Contact Zone
Williamson’s lecture, entitled “Development of Difference the Basis of Unity,” is at first sight an ill-organized address based on impressionistic observations of several European nations. 23 Williamson praised the diversity of different cultures in the world as a sign of the advancement of world civilization and stressed the need for “union of difference” by understanding and admiring such cultures that, Williamson asserted, was the proper mission of UCL. Williamson’s cosmopolitanism would not treat each country or region equally, however.
24 In this light Williamson’s perceived mission of UCL can be construed as a colonial strategy to augment a sense of British and European cultural superiority to other parts of the world. ”25 According to this model inspired both by the English tradition of liberal education at Oxford and Cambridge and laboratory-based chemistry teaching practiced by German chemist Justus Liebig at Giessen, the principal aim of chemistry teaching at universities and colleges was not vocational training in a particular industry but liberal education for a wider audience.
On the one hand, the Chōshū students, such as Yamao and Inoue Masaru who were most directly under Williamson’s supervision, and (through them) Itō inclined toward Williamson’s version of science education with more emphasis on “pure” chemistry. On the other hand, the Satsuma students, such as Mori and Hatakeyama, who had more contact with Graham than with Williamson, adopted Graham’s version of the liberal science model incorporating gei and gaku. This difference might seem small at this stage, but it became noticeable in the process of institutionalization of chemical pedagogy in early Meiji Japan that was undertaken by both Chōshū and Satsuma students; I will discuss this in the next chapter.
Anglo-American Connections in Japanese Chemistry: The Lab as Contact Zone by Yoshiyuki Kikuchi