By Richard F. Groeneveld
Groeneveld stories the conceptual and primary features of organizational effect over police discretion in box arrests. He unearths that street-level discretion via box officer
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Extra resources for Arrest Discretion of Police Officers: The Impact of Varying Organizational Structures (Criminal Justice: Recent Scholarship)
Thus, the closed system organization sees little need for interaction with its environment. Traditional organization theory and the closed system fall into the same stream of thinking and are compatible. Open systems theory, on the other hand, is important to the police administrator because it tends to view the police organization with a more consistent reality; the police department is not a closed system but, rather, an open one having many dynamic interactions with the larger society in which it is embedded.
For this reason it is essential for the administrator to understand the basis of systems theory. In examining various determinants of law enforcement policies in the United States, one has to look at the organization and how it is impacted as a system; a system being that grouping of separate but interrelated components working together toward the achievement of some common objective. The police administrator of today has to be responsive to the environment (internal and external) the system is operating under.
No matter how many warnings may be issued by superiors about limitations on the use of force, or how much persuasion is made that policing is a profession, police training continually reminds recruits that coercive power is a central feature of police life. Those who are being policed do not distinguish among blue uniforms. All cops come to be defined as brutal, and thus appropriate targets for retaliation. Hated cops are not safer cops. William Ker Muir (1977) was the first police scholar to call attention to the paradoxes of coercive power.
Arrest Discretion of Police Officers: The Impact of Varying Organizational Structures (Criminal Justice: Recent Scholarship) by Richard F. Groeneveld